*We tweak Benjamin Graham's simple formula for finding approximate valuations for growth stocks to make it work for Indian investors*

Every
investor faces the question whether a scrip is overpriced, underpriced
or fairly priced. It's generally not possible for retail/lay investors
to carry out long, intensive mathematical calculations using various
valuation models to figure this out. So, what should he do? Benjamin
Graham's simple formula for finding valuations of growth stocks comes to
the rescue. Benjamin Graham mentions the formula in his famous books
Security Analysis and The Intelligent Investor.

Following is the Benjamin Graham formula:

The
earnings per share is the trailing twelve-month earnings. 8.5 is the
P/E base for a no-growth company. Expected annual growth rate is the
estimated growth rate over seven to ten years.

In 1974, in the revised edition of The Intelligent Investor, Graham revised the formula to

In
this formula, 4.4 is the then prevailing (1962) rate on high-grade
corporate bonds listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Y is the current
yield on AAA-rated corporate bonds.

Graham thought that as the investor had the choice between putting money in common stocks or bonds, it was appropriate to take into account the rate of interest paid on a high-grade bond - 4.4 per cent- in determining the intrinsic value of a stock.

Dividing by the current yield on the AAA-rated (Y) corporate bonds normalises the 4.4 per cent bond rate to today's environment. The reason for the inclusion of Y is that Graham wanted a minimum required rate of return for investing in stocks. As you test the formula yourself, you will notice that bond rates affect valuation. The lower the yield the higher the price. This fact goes back to bond basics. If the yield is low, the price is high. If the yield is high, the price is low. Graham designed the formula to replicate this line of thought.

Since all intrinsic value calculations and formulas are based upon the opportunity cost relative to the risk-free interest rate, the modified formula has incorporated the same.

The formula requires minor tweaking to make it work as per the Indian market and to match it with the current time and scenario.

Instead of using 8.5 as the no-growth P/E, we will use a P/E of 7 in our version of the tweaked formula. This is because even if a company has zero growth prospects but it is able to maintain cash flows and distribute dividends, its P/E is generally higher than 8.5.

Instead of using a single figure for growth rate, calculate the average of five-six years of growth experienced by the company. If a company has only three years of operating history, then take the average of the three years.

Next is the '2' multiplier, which is too aggressive. This is understandable if you take things into perspective. Graham never experienced companies with growth rates of 15-25 per cent, which is common today. Instead of '2', you can reduce the multiplier to 1.5 or 1. From all the calculations we have performed using the Graham formula, we have found that using 1 is completely satisfactory and still yields an optimistic value.

Instead of multiplying by 4.4, the interest rate prevailing on high-grade bonds, which is basically the substitute of the risk-free return, we use five-year fixed deposit rate of 8.5 per cent.

The modified Graham formula is:

Let's look at SBI's intrinsic value using the information mentioned above.

SBI's TTM EPS = 22.57

Annual growth rate = 9.55 per cent

Current yield on the AAA-rated

corporate bonds = 8.3

SBI's intrinsic value = [(22.57) x (7 + 9.55) x 8.5]/

8.3 = R377.53

The difference between the intrinsic value and the current market price is the margin of safety. The greater the margin of safety the safer the investment. Warren Buffet recommends at least a margin of safety of 25 per cent.

This simple, easy-to-do calculation is no substitute for intensive, long and complex valuation models used by analysts. This formula won't give you a 'true' value but a value close to the valuation model. Do not follow it blindly.

We have compiled for you the intrinsic valuation of select Sensex companies and their margin of safety.

Following is the Benjamin Graham formula:

**Intrinsic value = Earnings per share x**

[(8.5 + (2 x Expected annual growth rate, g)]

[(8.5 + (2 x Expected annual growth rate, g)]

In 1974, in the revised edition of The Intelligent Investor, Graham revised the formula to

**Intrinsic value = [EPS x (8.5 + 2g) x 4.4]/Y**

Graham thought that as the investor had the choice between putting money in common stocks or bonds, it was appropriate to take into account the rate of interest paid on a high-grade bond - 4.4 per cent- in determining the intrinsic value of a stock.

Dividing by the current yield on the AAA-rated (Y) corporate bonds normalises the 4.4 per cent bond rate to today's environment. The reason for the inclusion of Y is that Graham wanted a minimum required rate of return for investing in stocks. As you test the formula yourself, you will notice that bond rates affect valuation. The lower the yield the higher the price. This fact goes back to bond basics. If the yield is low, the price is high. If the yield is high, the price is low. Graham designed the formula to replicate this line of thought.

Since all intrinsic value calculations and formulas are based upon the opportunity cost relative to the risk-free interest rate, the modified formula has incorporated the same.

__Tweaking the formula as per Indian markets__The formula requires minor tweaking to make it work as per the Indian market and to match it with the current time and scenario.

Instead of using 8.5 as the no-growth P/E, we will use a P/E of 7 in our version of the tweaked formula. This is because even if a company has zero growth prospects but it is able to maintain cash flows and distribute dividends, its P/E is generally higher than 8.5.

Instead of using a single figure for growth rate, calculate the average of five-six years of growth experienced by the company. If a company has only three years of operating history, then take the average of the three years.

Next is the '2' multiplier, which is too aggressive. This is understandable if you take things into perspective. Graham never experienced companies with growth rates of 15-25 per cent, which is common today. Instead of '2', you can reduce the multiplier to 1.5 or 1. From all the calculations we have performed using the Graham formula, we have found that using 1 is completely satisfactory and still yields an optimistic value.

Instead of multiplying by 4.4, the interest rate prevailing on high-grade bonds, which is basically the substitute of the risk-free return, we use five-year fixed deposit rate of 8.5 per cent.

The modified Graham formula is:

**Intrinsic value = [EPS x (7 + g) x 8.5]/Y**

SBI's TTM EPS = 22.57

Annual growth rate = 9.55 per cent

Current yield on the AAA-rated

corporate bonds = 8.3

SBI's intrinsic value = [(22.57) x (7 + 9.55) x 8.5]/

8.3 = R377.53

__Margin of safety__The difference between the intrinsic value and the current market price is the margin of safety. The greater the margin of safety the safer the investment. Warren Buffet recommends at least a margin of safety of 25 per cent.

__Word of caution__This simple, easy-to-do calculation is no substitute for intensive, long and complex valuation models used by analysts. This formula won't give you a 'true' value but a value close to the valuation model. Do not follow it blindly.

We have compiled for you the intrinsic valuation of select Sensex companies and their margin of safety.

# Overvalued sensex shares

Company | CMP (R) | Intrinsic Value (R) | Margin of Safety(%) |

HDFC | 1244.75 | 1243.8 | -0.08 |

NTPC | 150.15 | 144.73 | -3.74 |

ITC | 347.15 | 329.1 | -5.48 |

GAIL (India) | 369.1 | 339.24 | -8.80 |

Tata Steel | 370.15 | 330.35 | -12.05 |

Oil & Natural Gas | 315.8 | 275.25 | -14.73 |

Maruti Suzuki India | 3539.8 | 2303.97 | -53.64 |

Hero MotoCorp | 2352.55 | 1417.52 | -65.96 |

Larsen & Toubro | 1679.6 | 985.53 | -70.43 |

Hindustan Unilever | 889.55 | 460.7 | -93.09 |

Cipla | 637.8 | 190.44 | -234.91 |

# Undervalued sensex shares

Company | CMP (R) | Intrinsic Value (R) | Margin of Safety(%) |

Sesa Sterlite | 205.05 | 856 | 76.05 |

Tata Motors | 515.3 | 1225.11 | 57.94 |

ICICI Bank | 308.1 | 594.87 | 48.21 |

Axis Bank | 527.55 | 967.01 | 45.45 |

Sun Pharma | 947.8 | 1644.24 | 42.36 |

Bajaj Auto | 1996.85 | 3207.44 | 37.74 |

TCS | 2496.9 | 3944.88 | 36.71 |

State Bank Of India | 275.65 | 377.53 | 26.99 |

Reliance Industries | 879.4 | 1178.07 | 25.35 |

Wipro | 650.25 | 783.43 | 17.00 |

HDFC Bank | 1244.75 | 1480.93 | 15.95 |

Infosys | 1996.25 | 2364.11 | 15.56 |

Mahindra & Mahindra | 1170.45 | 1374.23 | 14.83 |